Antzararen bidea by Jokin Muñoz at – ISBN – ISBN – Alberdania – – Softcover. Antzararen bidea, 1. Antzararen bidea by Jokin (Muñoz · Antzararen bidea. by Jokin (Muñoz. Print book: Fiction. Basque. 5. argit. Irún: Alberdania. 2. Jokin Muñoz is the author of Antzararen bidea ( avg rating, 8 ratings, 0 reviews, published ) and Letargo ( avg rating, 6 ratings, 0 reviews).
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However, it remains paradoxical that when Unamuno was offering his analysis, the period of great Carlist role in letters was just about to begin. It lasted for some quarter of a century, as until the late s Carlism remained a key theme of numerous monumental works of Spanish literature. Afterwards it lost its appeal as a literary motive, still later reduced to instrumental role during Francoism. Today it enjoys some popularity, though no longer as catalyst of paramount cultural or political discourse; anyzararen role is mostly to provide exotic, historical, romantic and sometimes mysterious setting.
The literary response to the conflict was immediate and massive; its key feature were antzaraten objectives of both sides and often close follow-up to the events as they were unfolding. Two genres serving as key literary battlefields were poetry and drama, the most adapt ones in terms of responsiveness.
Carlism in literature – Wikipedia
On both the Cristinos gained immediate advantage, which in the aftermath of the war became visible also in prose, especially in the nascent novel. On the other hand, the popular oral rural response, which made it to literature once written down in the future, was predominantly pro-Carlist.
No Romantic work touching upon the Carlist subject is considered part of the antzararfn Spanish literature.
The outbreak of the First Carlist War, usually considered the birth moment of Carlism,  has almost immediately triggered a literary response. The literary genre which responded first was drama. There were a number of theatrical pieces bieda as the war was unfolding and it seems that most of them were actually staged, as they served mostly propagandistic purpose of mobilizing support; only few were rather comments to recent or even ongoing events.
Unlike in case of poetry, there is no anthology available. It seems that the anti-Carlist dramas fall into two categories: He made his name as author of theatrical pieces already in the mids; venomous caricatures of “los serviles”, e.
La Regencia de la Seo de Urgell o las desgracias del padre Liborio might be considered pre-configuration of his later anti-Carlist dramas and perhaps the first pieces of anti-Carlist literature. The poets  responded to the conflict almost as fast as authors of theatrical pieces did. The conflict and its immediate aftermath produced a spate of rhymed pieces, usually first published in press titles of the era.
This vast assortment bidae so far can be analyzed mostly in statistical terms; in terms of genre the poetry remains pretty differentiated, with odessonnetseposeslyricscantos, canciones, anthemsmarchessatire and other. In terms of key themes the ones listed are: Statistically pro-Cristinos seem to prevail, and their poetic zeal reached as far as to Andalusiaa region less affected by the First Carlist War.
Prose was the last one to acknowledge the Carlist theme. When Spanish novel of the midth century gradually emerged as anzararen cultural weapon against the Carlists, their own response on the field was meager. Navarro Villoslada, now converted into legitimism, fathered a number of acclaimed bicea popular historical romantic novels, yet they are set in earlier times and at best might be viewed as offering a general Traditionalist perspective.
A separate genre which might not fully fit into the literature rubric is a flood of rhymes of mostly popular and rural origin, which remained alive at times for generations when passed on in oral tradition; they entered literature only when put into writing by later scholars, be it ethnographers or historians. Two such Carlist-related anthologies are available for rhymes in Castellano and in Euskara ;  both demonstrate overwhelming support antzarren the Carlist cause among the rural folk, though principally among the Basques.
It antzarafen striking that in the European Romantic literature, always in pursuit of a myth, Carlism has been largely ignored,  save for the French legitimist poets like Edouard Turquety or Juliette Lormeau.
Greeks fighting the Turks, Poles fighting the Russians, later North American Indians fighting the Whites — yet the Carlists have never been even considered. The phenomena antzagaren to bbidea examined and clarified; some evidence suggests that they were generally associated with late Romantic icons of monstrosity, the reaction and the politics of Holy Alliancethe oppressive forces pitted against revolutionary and freedom-seeking national movements. Realism shifted the attention of writers tackling the Antzararne theme from poetry and drama to prose; it was the novel which sntzararen as the key genre where the question was discussed and it stays so until today.
Very much like during the Romantic period, literature remained a battleground between the Carlists and the Liberals, the latter clearly gaining advantage.
Like everywhere in Europe, periodization remains a problem in history of Spanish literature. Among many in-between figures of Spanish literature, Fernan Caballero with her Carlism-related works is often counted among the post-Romantic writers. The same is the case of Manuel Tamayo Bauswhose early works are counted into Romanticism and the later ones into Realism.
El Patriarca is a key work of early realist period; in terms of literary style it advances techniques typical for a new era, yet in terms of key message it conveys the same anti-Carlist narrative, presenting the opponents as hypocrites ran by the Jesuits and as murderers of bestial cruelty.
The novel, fairly popular in the s, features an extremely complex plot, covering also events of in France. It is valued by historians, as sections referring to the Madrid setting during the early phases of the war are possibly based on the author’s first hand experience. Outbreak of the Third Carlist War has generally reinforced the tone set by Ayguals de Izco and the literary Carlists petrified in their role of fanatic cruel rednecks ran by the treacherous clergy.
This time it was clearly the novel which became the key literary weapon, though it fell into two general genres: Focused on atrocities of the Carlist commander Samaniego, active during the last war — at that time the last was the Third Carlist War — it tended to brutal veracity. The first two series of his monumental string of historical novels named Episodios nacionales are set before and it is the following ones, technically written already during the modernist period, which tackle the issue head on.
However, they still represent typical Realism of their author and differ significantly — be it in terms of style or the role of Carlism — from the later modernist works. His objectives were clearly educative; his declared intention was to teach his compatriots their past. His political militancy made him par excellence the Spanish Liberal Crusader;  as such, he intended to demonstrate what damage Carlism had inflicted upon the nation. In history of literature the prevailing view is that galdosian position on Carlism remains fairly stable and can be viewed as homogeneous.
People can roam the streets freely, but howling and groaning of the monster can be still heard; since the brute might re-appear in town any minute, vigilance is the order of the day.
Also the Third Carlist War triggered popular cultural response, this time reduced almost entirely to the Basque linguistic realm and evading typical historical categories; this production is acknowledged in Karlisten Bigarren Gerrateko bertsoakanthology edited by Antonio Zavala A Traditionalist through all his life and a militant Carlist in his youth, he fathered a number of poems intended as a praise of Carlism.
They are written in Catalan, exalted in style and very explicit politically. One of them is dubbed “the Carlist anthem” by later scholars,  yet it seems it has never been printed and was re-constructed on basis of Verdaguer’s manuscripts. In prose the Carlist voice is down to two authors. In terms of Carlist motives the key difference between Modernism and earlier literary eras was that the movement ceased to be perceived as a direct threat. The Romantic and Realist literature was defined by political militancy; the Modernist writers can already afford another position.
For them Carlism is rather a vague phenomenon from the past, fading away yet still casting its dark shadow. Modernism was also the period when Carlism as a motive enjoyed top popularity among the Spanish literary greats. One was genuine, rooted in the rural population but largely unconscious, communitarian if not socialist, federative and anarchist in spirit. The two Carlisms are constantly present in Paz en la guerraconfusing both the protagonists and the readers; initially Unamuno was accused of nurturing Carlist sympathies, something he immediately denied.
In fact, for him Carlism was an element in a dialectic process of forming national identity and as such could not have been simply ignored or rejected. The vision of Pachico from last pages of the novel, namely that “both sides were right and neither was right”, is usually attributed to Unamuno himself. The title of the novel might be interpreted in two ways: This confrontation was not necessarily symbolic; in numerous works and statements Unamuno openly praised civil war as means of overcoming dialectic differences.
It was only once he had learnt the deadly toll of first months of the Spanish Civil War that he changed his view. The controversy is whether the apparent exaltation of Carlism, demonstrated by many of his protagonists and not infrequently also by storytellers of his novels, should be taken at face value or whether it is part of an ironic and perhaps provocative discourse. Settling the issue on basis of literature only seems close to impossible.
For others,  Carlism represents an ambiguous myth, an illusion, sometimes bordering farce; its role is to catalyze a discourse about Spanish history, which blends glory with absurd.
Among the giants of Spanish Modernism Baroja was the one who experienced most personal contact with Carlism, from his infancy days in the besieged Bilbao  to his senility in Vera de Bidasoa. From his Nietzschean perspective Carlism was the movement of the weak, animated by the Church and luring those unable to become “men of action”. Heavily attracted to rural vitality, at times primitive and brutal yet authentic, he lamented that it got hijacked by ideology powered by the priests, with the result of “double bestiality of being a Catholic and a Carlist”.
Hardly anyone of numerous Carlists, populating the novels of Baroja, is a man who joined the movement out of conviction: Though Baroja was attracted to what he saw as authentic rural virility in the Carlist ranks, he believed it endured despite, not because of their very Carlist nature. Baroja is careful to strip the Carlists of their notorious machista appearance, in his vision reduced to cowardly brutality.
Not only they can not wage the war like men, pursuing cowardly tactics and harassing women and children, but they are also beaten in one-to-one juvenile fistfights and lose miserably in pelota ; of course, they are neither a match for their opponents when it comes to attracting females. He was identified, personally and as enemy of religion and Carlism, and at a roadside he was held by the Carlists at gunpoint.
Following a brief discussion whether he should be executed, the year-old got off with a punch in the face. The most explicit case is La catedral ; the work is resemblant of an old-style militant assault rather than of the Modernist ambiguous discourse, as the Carlists are portrayed typically as hypocrites, who in the name of God engage in most ungodly atrocities or simply indulge in most earthly pleasures.
Ciro Bayo  released Dorregaray. Joan Bardina during his Carlist phase in the s fathered politically very militant and exalted poems  and satires, yet they remain unknown even in the Catalan literature. As author of heterogeneous short pieces Recorts de la darrera carlinada he is compared to such authors of war stories as Hemingway or Babel while his novel La Punyalada is counted among masterpieces of Catalan literature of all time.
Spanish literature of the 20th century poses a major problem in terms of periodisation, with many conflicting proposals offered; it seems close to impossible to single out an aesthetic literary trend generally accepted as prevailing or even to specify temporal borderlines for any given period, regardless of its would-be name.
Harboring a concept of violent clash as unavoidable outcome of current crisis, from the late regeneracionistas to the personalities of the Second Republic, is at times dubbed “catastrofismo”. The Civil War produced a brief spate of literature intended to mobilise support for the belligerent parties, including the Carlists. Unamuno has abandoned the Carlist motive, though he kept tackling the phenomenon in his treaties and studies. A unique case of Carlism featured as key motive in writings of a literary giant who did not come from a Hispanic culture is The Arrow of Gold by Joseph Conrad The Polish-English writer claimed he had been himself involved in smuggling arms for the rebels along the Mediterranean coast during the Third Carlist War, yet historians of literature do not agree whether these claims should be taken seriously.
Carlism in literature
The Arrow of Gold seems heavily based on these juvenile experiences, yet Carlism serves mostly as a background evoking an atmosphere of mystery. It is difficult to find either particular sympathy or particular hostility for the movement, yet many scholars claim that the key protagonist considered Conrad’s alter-ego was cynically used by Carlist conspirators.
Overall, the novel is considered a treaty on “emotional boundary between people”;  Conrad has never again displayed any literary interest in Spanish issues. Another foreigner who demonstrated interest in Carlism was Pierre Benoitone of the most-read French writers of the 20th century and himself a Traditionalist; he adhered to its specific secular breed, in France shaped by the personality of Charles Maurras.
His Pour don Carlos was marked by Benoit’s trademark style: He is worth noting because some of his novels, e. El abuelo del reyprovide a veiled discourse on tradition and change with Traditionalism present in the background. Moreover, in his later novels some of his Carlist personalities, like Don Alvaro from Nuestro Padre San Daniel and El obispo leproso escape the usual scheme and provide an ambiguous and rather mysterious point of reference.
Banking on his first-hand experience he released a unique novel on Anarchist terrorism, Memorias de un terrorista: In El barrio maldito he portrays the province as held in reactionary grip of the Carlists, who themselves are traditionally presented as hyprocrytes;  in Centauros del Pirineo in a somewhat Barojian manner he hailed smugglers, who represent “sensibilidad fina, moderna, europea” as opposed to “elemento tradicionalista”. Drama lost importance as political battleground already in the midth century, yet echoes of Carlism-related debates were heard also among the playwrights.
Among the spate of pro- Republican theatrical pieces of the s or even more militantly left-wing dramas of the early s many contained more or less explicit Carlist threads.
In three first decades of the 20th century he was contributing as a prosaist and publisher, though especially as a playwright; his dramas embrace religious topics in historical setting, like La Reina Lupa The outbreak of the warfare triggered a spate of literary works intended to mobilize support and sustain enthusiasm.
Literary production of the Republicans remained far lower than on the opposite side; in none of some 30 works identified there is a Carlist personaje worth noting,  though some feature Carlist themes, like A sangre y fuego by Manuel Chaves Nogales  or Loretxo by Txomin Arruti