The mfecane was partly caused by changes in the Nguni groups that resulted in the development of the Zulu nation. Stronger leaders began to. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were. Mfecane: Mfecane, (Zulu: “The Crushing”) series of Zulu and other Nguni wars In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated.

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Internet URLs are the best. Portuguese Rule in Central Africa as liberal and oppressive. Avoid resits and achieve higher grades with the best study guides, textbook notes, and class notes written by your fellow students. The adoption of corn as a caused staple gave this drought an even greater impact than those of the past because corn needed much more water than local grains in order to produce.

Causes of the Mfecane Causes of the Mfecane: The pattern of the Mfecane, in which tribe was set against tribe over an ever-increasing radius, was highly successful in areas weakened by overpopulation and overgrazing.

The Mfecane and Its Effects

English Language and Literature Studies – Literature. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Register or log in. It is worth noting that there were three major ethnic groups which occupied the areas now known as NquthuBabanangoEmpangeniMtubatubaHlabisaNongomaPongolaVryheidMelmoth and Mahlabathini — those ethnic groups were the Ngwanethe Ndwandwe and the Mthethwa.

For instance the Sotho who were living east of the Drakensberg [1] where invaded by the Hlubi, Khumalo and Ngwaneni who were fleeing from the Mfecane going on in the West of the Drakensberg around Mzilikazi set up his new capital in Bulawayo. Zwangendaba of the Jele or Gumbi clan son of Nonyanda ka Sguda Jele according to the information given by the original Gumbi clan of Kwazulu Natal and not kaHlatshwayo as stated by other researchers [ citation needed ]a commander of the Ndwandwe army, fled north with Soshangane after his defeat in Instead of using throwing spears, the Zulus used broad-bladed, stabbing spears known as iklwawhich were deadly in close combat.


It was copied by Dingiswayo in abid to implement the system it caused Mfecane. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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Causes of the Mfecane

He took him in together with his mother Queen Nandi and gave them refuge. At that time the Zulus were a very weak ethnic group under the leadership of Senzangakhona.

Panic, human suffering, the Fengu for instance became cannibals because they lost land, cattle cahses destruction of settlements The series o wars that came to be known as the Mfecane happened between the s and s along the coast and in valleys of Southern Africa especially the Pongola River valley. The Ngwane people lived in present-day Swazilandwhere they had settled in the southwest.

The Swazi composite was built by the Ngwane after they crossed the Pongola river and other Sotho and Nguni chiefdoms after they came into the region.

The Mfecane was set in motion by the rise of the Zulu military kingdom under Shaka c.

By the end of the 18th century, the Zulus occupied much of their arable land. Between andhe fought wars of expansion against the Pedi, Sengu, Ndwandwe societies which forced them to move north and east wards. Also, Mosheshwe who emerged as a leader of the Sotho after the decline of the Zulu Kingdom was able build a very strong political kingdom that later developed into what is now Lesotho in Southern Africa.

The Zulus also instituted a form of conscription, in which every man had to serve the king as soldier in special age regiments, known in English as impis. Thousands of people died because of ecological catastrophe and warfare; thousands more were displaced. Migrants, Strangers and the Church in Southern Africa. When Shaka attacked the Ngwane, Sobhuza’s men were outnumbered by the combination of the Mthethwasthe Buthelezis under Ngqengelele and the Zulus. Declining rainfall and a ten-year drought in the early 19th century set off a competition for land and water resources among the peoples of the area.

It will first discuss why the Mfecane is seen as single event, then move on to discuss its causes and effects and later conclude on the question based on the findings of the research. Bantu-speaking farmers had reached the margins of arable land on the edge of the Kalahari Desert in the northwest and in the mountains on the southern border of the Highveld, and people settling in the area found their access to water more and more limited. There was abandonment of some traditional practices such as circumcision.


The Journal of African History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Political history of South Africa. Lack of sufficient land for grazing that generated conflicts among theindigenous tribes such as the Zulu, Xhosa Shona, and Tswana etc. Even in places that they encountered resistance from the local people, the Mfecane had already weakened those Kingdoms and it became easy for the Boers to defeat the people and move into the interior.

Mfecane – Wikipedia

The Mfecane can be said to be a single event because all the wars that became the Mfecane and eventually led to the rise of the Zulu state were interconnected. Thank you for your feedback.

This forced migration was caused by a series of wars that engulfed the area between different states over land and resources. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

Wars based on resources and land became a pattern as each state wanted enough land and resources for their agricultural and economic activities. GRIN Publishing, located in Munich, Germany, has specialized since its foundation in in the publication of academic ebooks and books. Both of these invasionary forces dauses to travel north across Tswana territory without establishing any sort of state.

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