they had sustained blunt abdominal trauma. The FAST procedure is a simple technique what can be performed quickly and within minutes of a patient’s arrival at. assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) ultrasound examinations. . The objective of the abdominal portion of the examination is to analyze the. The initial motivation to carry out the FAST examination (Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma) is the high prevalence of abdominal trauma, which .

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Conversely, the image known as the “stratosphere” or “barcode” sign indicates an absence of sliding, which ecofasy be used to make the diagnosis of pneumothorax.

It is clear that the reliability of the examination increases with experience as it is an operator-dependent procedure. Superior right quadrant This evaluates the hepatorenal space, the Morrison pouch and the right pulmonary base.

Log in Sign up. This is done by placing the abdomknal slightly in front of the right midaxillary line between the 7th and 8th costal margins. Echographic evaluation splenic injury after blunt trauma.

When initiating the FAST test, the first thing one looks for is the presence of hemoperitoneum; then, after performing the chest exam, the next question to be answered is whether any chest injuries have abdominxl found, such as pneumothorax, haemothorax or cardiac tamponade.

The full examination should not take more than four minutes. Introduction The use of ultrasound technology to detect abdominal injury due to trauma was described by Kirstensen 1 in In those with a negative FAST result, a search for extra-abdominal sources of bleeding may still need to be performed.

It also visualizes the left pulmonary base and ipsilateral paracolic gutters. Since the s, the 4-point FAST US technique has been used for injury surveillance in people with blunt and penetrating trauma.

Pelvic or supra-pubic window This is to evaluate the presence of free liquid at the pelvic level, but traums not rule out pelvic fractures because this liquid can originate from solid organ injuries. Fluoroscopy Dental panoramic trauuma X-ray motion analysis.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. In addition, the diagnosis is quick and easy to obtain. It is worth noting that the presence of hemoperitoneum in a window is not specifically linked to bleeding in that site.


FAST is less invasive than diagnostic peritoneal lavageinvolves no exposure to radiation and is cheaper compared to computed tomographybut achieves a similar accuracy. Unable to process the form. In the left upper quadrant, blood may collect anywhere around the spleen perisplenic space. Free text at pubmed – Pubmed citation 6. Quantitative sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting free intraperitoneal fluid.

Focused assessment with sonography for trauma

Even ecofash the stratospheric sign can be an indication of pneumothorax its absence is not at abxominal reliable to rule out pneumothorax as definitive diagnosis usually requires X-ray or CT of thorax. Technique Causes of false negatives Causes of false positives History and etymology References Images: The diagnostic imaging should not be removed from the medical record. J Emerg Trauma Shock.

Received 19 December Accepted 24 March Available online 10 June Abstract The ultrasound is a useful, timely, and accessible tool to guide emergency patient care. American College of Emergency Physicians; Therefore, a negative exam will not preclude a bleed which will eventually become significant.

To best conduct chest and abdominal evaluations, a low-frequency transducer Mhz is required to examine the abdomen and subxifoid window, and a high-frequency transducer is required for the examination of the chest. In anaesthesia, for example, it will be useful to evaluate unstable patients in the peri-operative stage haemothorax, pneumothorax, cardiac taponade, abdominal bleeding.

Ultrasound is more popular daily due to its availability, easy accessibility, low cost, and due to its lack of ionizing radiation. In the right upper quadrant this typically appears in Morison’s Pouch between the liver and kidney. Furthermore, it is the leading cause of avoidable trauma-related death if it is detected in time.

A positive result suggests hemoperitoneum; often CT scan will be performed if the patient is stable [17] or a laparotomy if unstable.

Despite this, it is difficult to not rely on such a useful, available, economical, and portable tool in cases of patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal injury.

Focused assessment with sonography for trauma – Wikipedia

The ultrasound technician abdo,inal be trained in abdomen software if this option is available. The intensive care phyisican will always have access to this tool and it will be instrumental in monitoring the state of the trauma patient blunt abdominal trauma that becomes unstable, or occult pneumothorax that turns into tension pneumothorax with mechanical ventilation or ecofastt of a patient who has just come from surgery.


Numerous studies have shown FAST is useful in evaluating trauma patients. The sensitivity of the ultrasound for detecting pneumothorax and haemothorax is higher than that of X-rays. To review the nonradiologist use of ultrasound US in the setting of emergency and critical care, the development, clinical applications, and standardization of veterinary abdominal and thoracic focused assessment with sonography for trauma FAST techniques.

Trauma ultrasound examination versus chest radiography in the detection of hemothorax. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage Focused assessment with sonography for trauma. Negative FAST but full trauam [16]. This window is the most technically difficult to visualize Fig. FAST is most useful in trauma patients who are hemodynamically unstable.

It is important to visualize the diaphragm to determine the presence abxominal a potential haemothorax.

This evaluates the hepatorenal space, the Morrison pouch and the right pulmonary base. The learning curve of the ACEP recommends doing ultrasounds to obtain the appropriate sensitivity. Edit article Share article View revision history. Trakma initial motivation to carry out the FAST examination Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma is the high prevalence of abdominal trauma, which is the third cause of death from trauma in the world, surpassed only by eccofast brain injuries and chest trauma.

The emergency medical specialist can use FAST as a diagnostic tool, which will be immensely useful in determining the aetiology and management of the unstable patient.

Services on Demand Article. The four classic areas that are examined for free fluid are the perihepatic space including Morison’s pouch or the abdominzl recessperi splenic space, pericardiumand the pelvis. The transducer is positioned at the subxifoid level, using the liver as an acoustic window to obtain the best resolution.