Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Front Cover. Barney Warf. SAGE Publications, May 16, – Science – pages. Book Reviews. Peter O. Muller, Book Review Editor. Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Barney Warf, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, xxiii and pp. Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Barney Warf, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SageXXXX. xxiii and pp. $ cloth (ISBN ).

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Forgot your login information? With more than entries written by an international team of leading od in the field, the Encyclopedia of Human Geography offers geogrpahy comprehensive overview of the major ideas, concepts, terms, and approaches that characterize a notoriously diverse field.

This multidisciplinary volume provides cross-cultural coverage of human geography as it is understood in the contemporary world and takes into account the enormous conceptual changes that have evolved since the s, including a variety of social constructivist approaches. Encyclopedia of human geography Thousand Oaks, CA: Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile so that you can create alerts and save clips, playlists, and searches.

Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your eencyclopedia profile to access the email feature. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Human geography is such hu,an broad field of study that it is nearly impossible to categorize the multitude of topics it humann. This list is designed to encyvlopedia readers in finding articles on related topics. Headwords are organized into six major categories: Note, however, that many topics defy if categorization and belong to more than one grouping.

His research and teaching interests lie within the broad domain of human geography, particularly social, economic, and urban issues. He has studied New York as a global city, telecommunications and electronic capital markets, offshore banking in Panama, information net-works in the Dominican Republic, international networks of legal and engineering services, mergers in the telecommunications industry, the geographies of cyberspace, military spending, the lumber industry, the political economy of ports, Indonesia, and Cleveland, among other things.

He has coauthored or coedited 5 books, 25 book chapters, and 80 articles in journals, and he has won teaching and research awards. Human geography over the past encyclopesia has undergone a conceptual and methodological renaissance that has transformed it into the most dynamic and innovative of the social sciences.

That misconception has been decisively annihilated by the intellectual advances of the past four decades. The Encyclopedia of Human Geography offers a comprehensive overview of the major ideas, concepts, terms, and approaches that characterize a encyclopeda diverse field. No single volume can hope to capture the breadth and variety to be found in a discipline, but this book aspires to encapsulate at least the most important highlights of human geography at this moment in time.

The reader will find a variety of themes warrf different schools of thought and subject areas in this volume. The emphasis throughout has been on topics and ideas, and this focus has required the omission of other possible entries.

For example, there are no biographical summaries of well-known geographers. Human geography—the study of how societies construct places, how humans use the surface ehcyclopedia the earth, how social phenomena are distributed spatially, and ehcyclopedia we bring space into consciousness—has matured along multiple fronts. Starting as early as the s, many geographers turned to mathematical models of spatial phenomena, developing increasingly complex understandings of, for example, the spatial structures of urban areas, transportation systems, and public services.

These approaches, although now less prominent, made great contributions to the study of spatial diffusion, networks, and industrial location. Philosophically, this approach elevated the abstract over the concrete—the general over the specific—and reduced geography to geometry.

Its rigorous methodology reduced the role for armchair speculation and was useful in uncovering regularities in the landscape. The so-called positivist school of geography has been challenged and supplemented by various other philosophies and approaches, but the growth over the past two decades of geographic information systems GIS has given this way of looking at space new popular appeal.

The explosion of GIS has had wide-reaching and generally highly beneficial consequences for human geography, providing new means to model and simulate spatial phenomena with an unprecedented degree of analytical sophistication. The presence of GIS, both as a tool and as a language, has energized human geography in ways that were unthinkable just a generation ago. Although this encyclopedia addresses several topics of significance to positivism e.


Encyclopedia of Human Geography – Google Books

Several postpositivist perspectives have contributed significantly to the diversity of human geography today. Marxists injected into the field a concern with class and power along with a far richer understanding of production and the spatial division of labor, uneven development, and the need to historicize our understanding of space i. Marxism illustrated that geography cannot be understood independently of social structures—of how resources are organized and opportunities and constraints are produced differentially for and challenged by different groups—and raised the ethical obligation to confront inequality and injustice.

Similarly, feminists brought to the field the notion that social and spatial life always is gendered and that gender permeates social relations, crosscutting class and ethnicity in complex ways and shaping the daily lives and access to resources of men and [Page xxvi] women in a manner that often perpetuates, but occasionally challenges, patriarchy. An emerging line of thought concerns the spatiality of sexuality, introducing views drawn from queer theory to study sexual minorities.

Because culture is acquired through the process of socialization, individuals never live in a social vacuum; rather, they are socially produced from cradle to grave. Social and spatial structures consist of the rules and resources that people draw on in their daily lives and that in turn structure their actions.

Thus, time and space are reproduced through the very same structures that enable people to carry out their daily existence.

The socialization of the individual and the reproduction of society and place are two sides of the same coin. People reproduce the world, largely unintentionally, in their everyday lives, and in turn the world reproduces them through geogaphy.

In forming their biographies every day, people recreate and transform their social worlds primarily without meaning to do so; individuals are both produced by and producers of history and geography. Hence, everyday thought and behavior do not simply mirror the world; they constitute it.

This way of looking at human geography emphasized the contingent, open-ended nature of landscapes and the active role of people as agents, and it softened the blunt edges of earlier structuralist theories. Recently, many of the dualities that long characterized social science—nature versus society, the individual versus the social, the historical versus the geographic, and consumption versus production have broken down in the face of postmodern and poststructuralist approaches.

Postmodernism, a term that has suffered from its popularity, emphasized the complexity of the world, the difficulty or impossibility of finding absolute truth, the deep linkages between knowledge and power, and the ways in which some ways of truth making cover up, ignore, or annihilate other perspectives. Encylcopedia trend forced a reevaluation, among other things, of the geographt of the human subject; whereas classical theories portrayed human identities as stable and consistent, postmodernism holds them to be constantly in flux as individuals move among different categories of meaning.

Geographically, identities are both space forming and space formed, that is, inextricably intertwined with geographies in complex and contingent ways. Space affects not only what we see in the world but also how we see it.

Likewise, the human body has become an inspirational topic for human geographers, particularly the multiple ways in which identity, subjectivity, the body, and place are sutured together. Human geographers often are fascinated by the question wsrf how space is encoded and brought into consciousness through language. In a poststructuralist light, every representation is a simplification filled with silences, for the world is inherently more complex than our language allows us to admit.

Representations of space inevitably have social consequences albeit not always intended onesand geographic knowledge is less an objective mirror of the world than a contested battleground of views linked to different social interests.

Discourses are socially produced sets of representations that simultaneously enable and constrain our understanding of the world. Encyclopexia short, geographic representations are part of the reality they help to construct; word making is also world making.

That is, discourses do not simply mirror the world; they constitute it. An earlier literature denaturalized maps, revealing them to be far from objective views of space but rather partial, inevitably biased discourses that represent the world in some yeography and not others, naturalizing what they portray by obscuring social origins and processes.

Geographic information systems, for all of waarf technological sophistication, long labored under the assumption that they too were, or at least could be, atheoretical, objective representations of the world. Human geography, however, has engaged in a mutually beneficial dialogue with practitioners and theoreticians of GIS, a dialogue that has pointed to GIS as a culturally laden discourse that selectively filters the ways in which the world is portrayed and analyzed.


The explosion of the Internet has unleashed, perhaps gekgraphy, analyses of the geography of cyberspace. Electronic communications have contributed to a massive worldwide round of time—space compression that reconfigured social relations and the rhythms of everyday life. In studying cyberspace, most human geographers jettisoned the technological determinism that holds that telecommunications simply affects space in favor of views that barnej the coevolution of communications and space.

The Internet is a social product that is interwoven with relations of class, race, and gender and inescapably subject to the uses and misuses of power. In an age when ever broader domains of everyday life are increasingly mediated electronically, this literature has moved beyond simplistic dichotomies such as online and off-line to suggest the ways in which the real and the virtual are shot through with one another.

Globalization, the latest chapter in the expansion of capitalism, has rapidly increased the scope, volume, and velocity of international linkages, and as a result geographers have produced an ocean of literature on topics such as transnational capital, international trade, global commodity chains, global cities, international financial and telecommunications systems, and how the global economy is reshaping geopolitics and governance.

In several disciplines, including human geography, postcolonialism has encyclpedia the study of globalization back in time, noting that the European colonial conquest of the world was as much a cultural and ideological project as an economic and political one. Thus, colonialism took many forms, including the pervasive Eurocentrism wsrf Western social science that portrayed the West as the dynamic active motor of history and the rest of the world as passive recipients.

This view has been bsrney challenged, in part by human geographers. Postcolonial geographers confront the discursive and ideological presumption that non-Western societies were not every bit as much intellectually vibrant and original as the West and that non-Western ways of knowing have been marginalized through the encyclopexia relations of colonialism.

As topic after topic has fallen sway to social constructivism, including gender, time and space, poverty, and the body, it is not surprising that the hjman recently has exhibited a renewed appreciation of how social relations are intertwined with the physical wqrf. By enfolding nature within social relations and discourse, the biophysical environment is depicted as shaped, molded, and even enfyclopedia through human action.

All of these changes, schools, and perspectives have made human geography both considerably more complicated and much richer. The editors hope that users of this encyclopedia will appreciate the diversity and sophistication of contemporary human geography and in turn use its themes and concepts for their own purposes.

Encyclopedia of Human Geography

For broad overviews of the topic, see the entries at the end of this Introduction. Finally, I thank the numerous people who were so generous with their time in this project.

This project and I owe them an enormous debt of gratitude. The authors and contributors themselves—all gfography them—contributed a wonderful series of entries on a bewildering array of topics; I have learned more from them than they will ever know. Peck were enormously helpful throughout the editorial and production process.

Any mistakes are my own. And of course, I am constantly thankful for my wife Santa Arias and my son Derek for their love, energy, humor, and support. CQ Press Your definitive resource for politics, policy and people. Back Institutional Login Please choose geograaphy an option shown below. Need help logging in? September 15, DOI: Email Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature.

View Copyright Page [Page iv]. Rolf Janke Acquisitions Editor: Robert Rojek Developmental Editor: Yvette Pollastrini Reference Systems Coordinator: Leticia Gutierrez Project Editor: Tracy Alpern Copy Editor: See Limits of Computation.

See New International Division of Labor.

Encyclopedia of Human Geography

See Tobler’s First Law of Geography. See Spaces of Representation. Handbook of cultural geography. History and concepts 3rd ed. Space, theory, and hujan human geography.